Germany Facts: Biodiversity


The territory of Germany can be subdivided into 2 eco regions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. The majority of Germany is still covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30%); 13% consists of permanent pastures, and only 12% is covered by settlements and streets. Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe: Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute 1/3 of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir predominate in mountain areas; pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include deer, wild boar, mouflon/wild sheep, badger, fox, hare, and beaver. The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol. 

The 14 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park, and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In addition, there are 14 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is the largest number in any country. The Berlin Zoo, opened in 1844 – it’s the oldest zoo in Germany, and has the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.