Windmill in Friedrichskoog in the district of Dithmarschen, Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. It is situated near the outflow of the Elbe into the Nordsee (North Sea), approx. 25 km from Heide, and 25 km from Cuxhaven. The municipality is located in and named after the polder (German: Koog), which was named in honour of King Frederick VII of Denmark.


GERMAN ISLANDS: 9 minute report auf Deutsch on the Nordsee island of Föhr.

Föhr is one of the North Frisian Islands on the German North Sea coast. It is part of Nordfriesland in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Föhr is the second-largest North Sea island of Germany and a popular destination for tourists for its beautiful beaches and traditional homes.

Aurich in Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Northe…

Aurich in Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Northern Germany. Its beginnings as a town date back to the 13th century, when „Aurechove“ was first mentioned in a document. In 1517, it was rebuilt after an attack and the town center was established — it is still in place today. In 1539, Aurich was made the county capital. Ostfriesland (East Frisia) was inherited by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1744. After the Prussian Army was defeated, Aurich became part of the Kingdom of Holland in 1808. In 1810, the Kingdom of Holland was annexed by France and Aurich was made the capital of the department Ems-Oriental of the French Empire. After Napoleon was defeated in 1814, it passed to the Kingdom of Hannover in 1815, then was annexed by Prussia in 1866 and made part of the Province of Hannover. After WW2, it became part of the new state of Lower Saxony and this is what it has been since.

Linguistic map of Old High German (Alemannic &…

Linguistic map of Old High German (Alemannic & Bavarian), Old Frankish, Old Saxon, and Old Frisian at the time of Otto I, 10th century

Die deutschen Stämme (German tribes)

The derivation of the German people from a number of German tribes (Deutsche Stämme; Volksstämme) developed in 18th to 19th century German historiography and ethnography. This concept of „stems" relates to the early and high medieval period and is to be distinguished from the more generic Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity. A distinction was sometimes made between the “ancient stems” (Altstämme) in existence in the 10th century, and “recent stems” (Neustämme), which emerged in the high medieval period due to eastward expansion. The delineation of the 2 concepts is necessarily vague and has a history of academic dispute. The terms Stamm, Nation or Volk variously used in modern German historiography reflect the Middle Latin gens, natio or populus of the medieval source material.

Traditional German historiography counts 6 Altstämme (ancient stems) – Bavarians, Swabians (Alamanni), Franks, Saxons, Frisians, and Thuringians. All of these were incorporated in the Carolingian Empire by the late 8th century. Only 4 of them are represented in the later stem duchies; the former Merovingian duchy of Thuringia was absorbed into Saxony in 908 while the former Frisian kingdom had been conquered into Francia in 734. The customary or tribal laws of these groups were recorded in the early medieval period. Franconian, Saxon, and Swabian law remained in force and competed with imperial law well into the 13th century.

The list of “recent stems” (Neustämme) is much less definite and subject to considerable variation; groups that have been listed under this heading include the Märker, Lausitzer, Mecklenburger, Upper Saxons, Pomeranians, Silesians, and East Prussians, roughly reflecting German settlement activity from the 12th-15th centuries.

The use of Stämme (tribes) rather than Völker (nations, peoples) emerged in the 1800s in the context of the project of German unification. This terminology is reflected in the preamble of the Weimar constitution of 1919, reading „Das deutsche Volk, einig in seinen Stämmen“ (The German nation (people), united in its tribes). The division remains in current use in the conventional classification of German dialects into Franconian, Alemannic, Thuringian, Bavarian, and Low Saxon (including Friso-Saxon, with Frisian proper being regarded as a separate language). In the Free State of Bavaria, the division into “Bavarian stems” (bayerische Stämme) remains current for the populations of Altbayern (Bavaria proper), Franconia, and Swabia. Read more: