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HUNGARIANS IN GERMANY

There are approx. 120,000 Hungarians living in Germany. They have emigrated since the Middle Ages, but since WW1, numbers have increased at a higher pace. Today, around 75% of them live in Bayern (Bavaria), Baden-Württemberg, and Hessen. Only about 60% arrived with a Hungarian passport; many came from areas of the former Kingdom of Hungary (look up the Treaty of Trianon from 1920).

About 30,000 Hungarians arrived after 1945

About 25,000 arrived after the Hungarian Revolution of 1956

25,000 came as Gastarbeiter (guest workers) from Yugoslavia after 1960

Around 5,000 migranted from Czechoslovakia after the Prague Spring of 1968

Approx. 30,000 Hungarians came from Transylvania / Romania after 1975

About 15,000 arrived fleeing communism in general in Hungary

15,000 moved to East Germany (until the 1990 German reunification)

Notable people of Hungarian descent:

— Albrecht Dürer, painter (his father moved to Germany from Hungary, his surname refers to their old Hungarian village)

— Béla Ernyey, actor

— Joschka Fischer, politician, foreign minister, his family was expelled from Hungary in 1946

— Imre Kertész, writer, recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature

— Kevin Kurányi, football player (Hungarian on father)

— Philipp Lenard, physicist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905

— Franz Liszt, classical composer

— Leslie Mándoki, musician

— Dzsenifer Marozsán, football player, captain of the Germany women’s national team, Willi Orban – football player, Niklas Süle – football player

— George Tabori, writer

For the reversed situation of Germans in Hungary, also see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germans_of_Hungary

Linguistic map of Old High German (Alemannic &…

Linguistic map of Old High German (Alemannic & Bavarian), Old Frankish, Old Saxon, and Old Frisian at the time of Otto I, 10th century

Die deutschen Stämme (German tribes)

The derivation of the German people from a number of German tribes (Deutsche Stämme; Volksstämme) developed in 18th to 19th century German historiography and ethnography. This concept of „stems" relates to the early and high medieval period and is to be distinguished from the more generic Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity. A distinction was sometimes made between the “ancient stems” (Altstämme) in existence in the 10th century, and “recent stems” (Neustämme), which emerged in the high medieval period due to eastward expansion. The delineation of the 2 concepts is necessarily vague and has a history of academic dispute. The terms Stamm, Nation or Volk variously used in modern German historiography reflect the Middle Latin gens, natio or populus of the medieval source material.

Traditional German historiography counts 6 Altstämme (ancient stems) – Bavarians, Swabians (Alamanni), Franks, Saxons, Frisians, and Thuringians. All of these were incorporated in the Carolingian Empire by the late 8th century. Only 4 of them are represented in the later stem duchies; the former Merovingian duchy of Thuringia was absorbed into Saxony in 908 while the former Frisian kingdom had been conquered into Francia in 734. The customary or tribal laws of these groups were recorded in the early medieval period. Franconian, Saxon, and Swabian law remained in force and competed with imperial law well into the 13th century.

The list of “recent stems” (Neustämme) is much less definite and subject to considerable variation; groups that have been listed under this heading include the Märker, Lausitzer, Mecklenburger, Upper Saxons, Pomeranians, Silesians, and East Prussians, roughly reflecting German settlement activity from the 12th-15th centuries.

The use of Stämme (tribes) rather than Völker (nations, peoples) emerged in the 1800s in the context of the project of German unification. This terminology is reflected in the preamble of the Weimar constitution of 1919, reading „Das deutsche Volk, einig in seinen Stämmen“ (The German nation (people), united in its tribes). The division remains in current use in the conventional classification of German dialects into Franconian, Alemannic, Thuringian, Bavarian, and Low Saxon (including Friso-Saxon, with Frisian proper being regarded as a separate language). In the Free State of Bavaria, the division into “Bavarian stems” (bayerische Stämme) remains current for the populations of Altbayern (Bavaria proper), Franconia, and Swabia. Read more:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_duchy

The Holy Roman Empire, circa 1000 Ein Stammhe…

The Holy Roman Empire, circa 1000

Ein Stammherzogtum (stem duchy, as in „Stamm“ for tribe in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians & Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911), and the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.

The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire declined, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as the subdivisions of the realm. The 5 stem duchies are: Bavaria, Franconia, Lotharingia, Saxony, and Swabia/Alemannia. They were retained as the major divisions of Germany under the Salian dynasty, and became increasingly obsolete during the early high medieval period under the Hohenstaufen dynasty. They were finally abolished in 1180 by Frederick Barbarossa in favour of more numerous territorial duchies.

Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_duchy

The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 13th century…

The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 13th century under the German Hohenstaufen dynasty (1155-1268).

The Staufer, aka House of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254). They also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily. In Italy, they’re known as the Svevi (Swabians) as they were successive dukes of Swabia from 1079. Three members of the dynasty – Frederick I, Henry VI, and Frederick II – were crowned Holy Roman Emperors. The dynasty is named for their seat at Hohenstaufen Castle, which was in turn named for a conical hill of the Swabian Jura with the name Hohenstaufen in what is now Göppingen, Baden-Württemberg, Southwestern Germany. Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hohenstaufen