Was Mozart German or Austrian? Technically, neither. Salzburg was an independent ecclesiastical territory until 1803, ruled by a Prince-Archbishop. In spite of the fact that it was a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, its inhabitants didn’t see themselves as either German or Austrians. When Mozart labelled himself as a “true German” (“ehrlicher Teütcher”) he was implicitly referring to his language and to his cultural heritage (it should also be taken into account that his father was Bavarian and the Mozarts had Swabian origins). Mozart was first and foremost a citizen of Salzburg (a “salzburgian”, even though it is not a commonly used term), and later a subject of the Habsburg Monarchy (when he moved to Vienna). From a contemporary viewpoint, he can be considered Austrian.