Till Eulenspiegel is the protagonist of a Germ…

Till Eulenspiegel is the protagonist of a German chapbook from 1515 (a first edition of circa 1510/12 is preserved fragmentarily) with a possible background in earlier Middle Low German folklore.

Eulenspiegel is a native of Braunschweig (Brunswick) whose picaresque career takes him to many places throughout the Holy Roman Empire. He plays practical jokes on his contemporaries, especially scatological in nature, exposing vices at every turn. His life is set in the first half of the 14th century, and the final chapters of the chapbook describe his death from the plague of 1350. His name translates to “owl mirror”, and the frontispiece of the 1515 chapbook, as well as his alleged tombstone in Mölln, Schleswig-Holstein, display the name in rebus writing, by an owl and a hand mirror. Retellings of the Eulenspiegel tradition have been published in modern literature, since the later 19th century. Notably, The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak by Charles De Coster (1867) transfers the character to the context of the Protestant Reformation and the Dutch Revolt. The Ulenspiegel (modern Dutch: Tijl Uilenspiegel) from this novel became a symbol of Flemish independence. Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Till_Eulenspiegel

Aurich in Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Northe…

Aurich in Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Northern Germany. Its beginnings as a town date back to the 13th century, when „Aurechove“ was first mentioned in a document. In 1517, it was rebuilt after an attack and the town center was established — it is still in place today. In 1539, Aurich was made the county capital. Ostfriesland (East Frisia) was inherited by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1744. After the Prussian Army was defeated, Aurich became part of the Kingdom of Holland in 1808. In 1810, the Kingdom of Holland was annexed by France and Aurich was made the capital of the department Ems-Oriental of the French Empire. After Napoleon was defeated in 1814, it passed to the Kingdom of Hannover in 1815, then was annexed by Prussia in 1866 and made part of the Province of Hannover. After WW2, it became part of the new state of Lower Saxony and this is what it has been since.

Das Schloss Moyland is a moated castle in Bedb…

Das Schloss Moyland is a moated castle in Bedburg-Hau in the district of Kleve, one of the most important neo-Gothic buildings in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Its name derives from the Dutch word Mooiland („beautiful country"), which was probably coined by the Dutch workers the former owner Jacob van den Eger had brought in to drain the surrounding wetlands. The building is now primarily a museum devoted to exhibiting the world’s largest collection of work by artist Joseph Beuys. It’s a popular destination on the Lower Rhein. https://www.moyland.de/

The Holy Roman Empire, circa 1000 Ein Stammhe…

The Holy Roman Empire, circa 1000

Ein Stammherzogtum (stem duchy, as in „Stamm“ for tribe in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians & Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911), and the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.

The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire declined, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as the subdivisions of the realm. The 5 stem duchies are: Bavaria, Franconia, Lotharingia, Saxony, and Swabia/Alemannia. They were retained as the major divisions of Germany under the Salian dynasty, and became increasingly obsolete during the early high medieval period under the Hohenstaufen dynasty. They were finally abolished in 1180 by Frederick Barbarossa in favour of more numerous territorial duchies.

Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_duchy