German-Japanese relations (日独関係; Deutsch-Japanische Beziehungen) were established in 1860 with the first ambassadorial visit to Japan from Prussia (which predated the German Empire in 1871). Japan modernized rapidly after the Meiji Restoration of 1867, often using German models through intense intellectual and cultural exchange. After 1900, Japan aligned itself with Britain, so Germany and Japan were official enemies in WW1 – Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 and seized key German possessions in China and the Pacific. In the 1930s, both countries adopted aggressive militaristic attitudes toward their respective regions. This led to a rapprochement and a political and military alliance that included Italy: the “Axis”. During WW2, the Axis was limited by the great physical distances; Japan and Germany fought separate wars, and eventually surrendered separately. After WW2, the economies of both nations experienced rapid recoveries. Bilateral relations, now focused on economic issues, were soon re-established. Today, Japan and Germany are both in the top 5 economies in the world, and benefit from political, cultural, scientific, and economic exchange. According to a 2012 Bertelsmann Poll, the Germans view Japan overwhelmingly positively, and regard it as less of a competitor and more of a partner. Japanese views are also positive, with 97% of Japanese viewing Germany positively and only 3% viewing it negatively. The largest Japanese community in Germany is in Düsseldorf with about 11,000 Japanese, including both permanent and temporary residents and German-born citizens of Japanese ancestry. Since the 1950s Düsseldorf has hosted over 500 Japanese companies. List of Japanese supermarkets in Germany here.